Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy type tamper) (Gr. Lie "black", sound "voltage") - a hormone produced by the pineal gland mainly during the night sleep. It slows down the metabolism, inhibits the thyroid function. It is also an antioxidant that intercepts free radicals.
Meaning for sleep rhythm
The researchers believe that the cause of seasonal depression are changes in autumn and winter light, which change melatonin production.
Melatonin inhibits the thyroid function and slows the metabolism. It is produced in the brain in sleep.
Melatonin production is stimulated by darkness and slowest through blue light. The precursor (precursor) of melatonin is serotonin, a neurotransmitter that is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.
In mammals, two types of melatonine receptors were identified: MEL1A and MEL1B. Most melatonine receptors are in the hypothalamus and in the retina of the eye. With increasing age of the body, melatonin production is disturbed. It depends on a decrease or degeneration of the activity of the pineal gland (Latin Corpus Pineale) and is associated with more frequent sleep disorders.
Medicines from melatonin type
Melatonine Hormone is available in pharmacies. It is used in different types of sleep disorders - aging, traveling, trying to adapt to a new sleep rhythm. One of Melatonin's drugs is Circadin. It is designed so that at gradual dissolution of the drug its concentration in the body remains the same and similar to the melatonin produced by naturally produced. The effectiveness and safety of this medicinal product in the studies agreed with the effectiveness of Hypodics from Benzodiazepine (BZD) and non-benzodiazepine (non-BZD). Melatonin is not associated with an impairment of the executive function. The sleep remains after discontinuation of melatonin treatment, without withdrawal symptoms or reversible insomnia - which is typical of BZD or non-BZD hypnotics. 
About Vitamin D.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids that are responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphate as well as numerous other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds are known in this group vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (Ergocalcififerol).
The most important natural source of vitamin is the synthesis of cholecalcififerol in the lower layers of the skin pidermis by a chemical reaction depending on the sun irradiation (especially UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ErgoCalciferol can be absorbed from the food and dietary supplements. Few foods, such as the meat of fat fish, of course contain significant amounts of vitamin D. In the US and other countries, cow's milk and vegetable milk replacement products are enriched with vitamin D, as well as many breakfast zerals. Mushrooms exposed to ultraviolet light contributes useful amounts of vitamin D. Nutritional recommendations normally assume that the entire vitamin D of a person is taken orally, as sunlight in the population is different and recommendations for the amount of solar radiation is uncertain on the skin cancer risk.
Vitamin D from food or skin synthesis is biologically inactive. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. Since vitamin D can be synthesized by most mammals in sufficient amounts when exposed sufficiently sunlight, it is not absolutely necessary, so technically no vitamin. Instead, it can be considered as hormone, whereby the activation of the vitamin D-pro hormone leads to the active form calcitriol, which then causes effects in several places via a core receptor.
Cholecalciferol is converted to the liver in Calcifediol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol); Ergocalcififerol is converted into 25-hydroxyergocalciferol. These two vitamin D-metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25 (OH) d) are measured in serum to determine the vitamin D status of a person. Calcifediol is further hydroxylated by the kidneys to form calcitriol (also known as 1.25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the biologically active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol circulates as hormone in the blood and plays an important role in regulating the calcium and phosphate concentration. and promoting healthy growth and rebuilding from bones. Calcitriol also has other effects, including some cell growth, neuromuscular and immune functions and reducing inflammation.
Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homotase and metabolism. His discovery was based on the efforts to find the food substance that is missing in children with Rachitis (the childhood form of osteomalacia). Vitamin D preparations are administered for the treatment or prevention of osteomalacia and rachitis. The evidence for other health effects of vitamin D supplementation in the general population is inconsistent. The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality is not clear. MetaAnalysis showed a small decline in mortality in older people, and another conclusion that there is no clear justification for the recommendation of supplementation to the prevention of many diseases, and that further investigations with similar design are not needed in these areas
A review from the year 2002 concluded that the evaluated data indicates that 5-HTP is more effective in the treatment of depression as a placebo, but the evidence correspond due to the lack of clinical data corresponding to the strict standards of today , is not conclusive. More and larger studies are required using current methods to determine whether 5-HTP is really effective in the treatment of depression. In small controlled studies, it was also reported that 5-HTP increases the antidepressant efficacy of the antidepressant clomipramine.
5-HTP is sometimes taken by people down from MDMA to alleviate the dysphorie to MDMA. Since 5-HTP is a necessary precursor to the brain to produce more serotonin, and the use of MDMA reduces the natural serotonin level of a person is assumed that the intake of 5-HTP accelerates serotonin production after consumption of MDMA. Dancesafe claims that the anecdotal evidence is widespread and that theory is physiologically reasonable. Behind this approach are investigations by Wang et al. In 2007, which observed that MDMA-induced depletions of 5-HT (serotonin) were restored in rats after administration of 5-HTP, and pointed out that this approach could be clinically useful in abstinent MDMA users.
In high doses or in combination with carbidopa, it was used off-label for the treatment of obesity (by promoting weight loss).
In clinical trials with different design, it was also reported that 5-HTP fibromyalgia, myoclonus, migraine and small thirnataxy was treated. However, these clinical findings are preliminary as all therapeutic findings with 5-HTP and must be confirmed in larger studies.